Johann Kaspar Lavater
“Of the Harmony between Moral Beauty and Physical Beauty.”
Johann Kaspar Lavater was a Protestant pastor and Swiss writer. The word physiognomy is derived from the Greek physis, meaning “nature,” and gnomon, meaning “judge” or “interpreter.” Physiognomy involves the art of assessing one’s character or personality from his or her outer appearance and expression, especially the face. The term also refers to the general appearance of a person or object. Physiognomy dates back to ancient times with the poets of Greece and the Siddhars of India. Ancient Chinese practiced mianxiang, or “face reading.” Aristotle and Zopyrus were also known to practice ancient physiognomy. Lavater is credited for promoting modern physiognomy. His Essays on Physiognomy, originally published in German, were later translated into French and English.
Essays on Physiognomy. Vol. 1.